To celebrate the 20th anniversary of my original website from 1997 I have re-published it for all to see.
This site has moved home a few times over the years. It was originally hosted at CERN when I was working my first proper job and then on Google Drive.
Now I have it hosted on Amazon Web Services (for less than 60p a month).
• Read the article: “SPACEWAR” by Stewart Brand (Rolling Stone magazine, December 1972)
I buy quite a few books that then sit on a shelf, Kindle or Audible account for several years. Since the year 2000 I’ve had “Dealers of Lightning”, a history of the earliest days of (American) computing, waiting to be read. The other day I was flicking through the notes at the back of the book and this article was mentioned so I tracked it down online.
SPACEWAR is an article that appeared in Rolling Stone magazine in December 1972 written by Stewart Brand. Brand is fondly remembered by older technologists as the founder of an early online community called the WELL and the Whole Earth Catalog, a late 60’s / 70’s catalogue for members of the American counter-culture.
Friends, I won’t be able to explain every computer-technical term that comes by. Fortunately you don’t need them to get the gist of what’s happening.
A distinct, intelligent vibe
There is a distinct, intelligent vibe in the style of writing, although I wonder how much readers at the time were able to decipher what the author meant when he describes what is happening during the game. It makes sense to people today because we are all familiar with video games, but to put this article in some kind of context it appeared one week after the arcade game Pong was released and six years before Space Invaders.
Talking of vibe, this article reminds me a lot of Tom Wolfe’s wonderful look at the invention of the integrated circuit (microchip) and the birth of Silicon Valley in “The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce” from Esquire magazine. If you haven’t read either article, start with Wolfe’s. You won’t regret it.
Plus ça change…
Something else you notice is how things haven’t changed much in 45 years – for example Artificial Intelligence is still the bleeding edge in technical prowess…
There’s a speech recognition project. There’s the hand-eye project, in which the computer is learning to see and visually correct its robot functions. There’s work on symbolic computation and grammatical inference.
…and the image of the computer geek (“Computer Bum” or “hacker”) was also already being cultivated:
The hackers are the technicians of this science – “It’s a term of derision and also the ultimate compliment.” They are the ones who translate human demands into code that the machines can understand and act on. They are legion. Fanatics with a potent new toy. A mobile new-found elite, with its own apparat, language and character, its own legends and humor.
The beginnings of the internet
There is also some history of ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency), from which came the Arpanet and subsequently the internet.
“90 percent of all good things that I can think of that have been done in computer science have been done funded by that agency. Chances that they would have been funded elsewhere are very low.”
Some of today’s technology jargon was in use back then too – there is mention of users sitting down “on-line” with a computer, and the ARPA Network being “up” (working) or “down” (crashed).
The dream for the Net was that researchers at widely separated facilities could share special resources, dip into each other’s files, and even work on-line together on design problems too complex to solve alone.
“How Net usage will evolve is uncertain”
Also, they saw possible opportunities and risks when connecting machines together, echoing today’s debates over internet freedoms vs surveillance:
How Net usage will evolve is uncertain. There’s a curious mix of theoretical fascination and operational resistance around the scheme. The resistance may have something to do with reluctances about equipping a future Big Brother and his Central Computer. The fascination resides in the thorough rightness of computers as communications instruments, which implies some revolutions.
They were aware that the Net had the opportunity to disrupt industries and even back then they picked out the news industry and the music biz:
From anywhere on the Net you can log in and get the news that’s coming live over the wire … Project that to household terminals, and so much for newspapers (in present form).
Since huge quantities of information can be computer-digitalized and transmitted, music researchers could, for example, swap records over the Net with “essentially perfect fidelity.” So much for record stores (in present form).
Their ideas, our world
One aspect that came over very strongly – reading this with the benefit of hindsight – is how the ideas from this group of people have shaped the computing environment we have today. Some of the projects they were working on or discussing may not have had names back then but they do now. Examples? How about the paperless office or desktop publishing.
But it was the picture of the “Dynabook” that took my breath away.
It looks like an iPad with the on-screen keyboard showing…
It is described as:
a hand-held stand-alone interactive-graphic computer… It’ll have a graphics capability which’ll let you make sketches, make drawings… Working with a stylus on the display screen… incorporate music in it so you can use it for composing… It has the Smalltalk language capability which lets people program their own things very easily… And of course it plays Spacewar.”
That description sounds to me like the Apple Pencil, iTunes / Garageband, Swift Playgrounds and Apps.
Products from Apple – the biggest company in the world today by market capitalization.
(Addendum: Some product names from Apple include PowerBook, iBook, Macbook)
Ideas at the core of Apple?
Now having discovered this article I think that Steve Jobs’ ideas on the nature of computing could have been inspired by this kind of reporting. This article from Rolling Stone came out in December 1972, more than 3 years before the founding of Apple in 1976. He was 17 when this article came out.
One of the ideals that comes across throughout this article is what the impact could be once computers are accessible to everyone:
away from hugeness and centrality, toward the small and the personal, toward putting maximum computer power in the hands of every individual who wants it… They’ll reach millions when computer power becomes like telephone power…. I think it’s important to bring computing to the people… Far beyond borrowing some one else’s computer is having your own computer… Computing power to the people.
That sounds like the Macintosh – the computer for the rest of us.
There is so much here to enjoy. I heartily recommend you read this if you have any interest in computing. I just wonder how many more of these articles are out there in old general interest magazines.
The article in all its 1970’s glory:
This is an excellent introduction to bitcoin, cryptocurrencies and the blockchain, intelligently covering the subject in 200 pages.
My favourite sections examine the blockchain, delving into subjects such as public key cryptography, proof of work and its relation to bitcoin. It doesn’t get overly technical but explains step-by-step how things work. Despite bitcoin being better known, it is clear that the blockchain – the foundational technology behind the currency – is more likely to revolutionise the economy. The problems facing bitcoin are not widely covered but are mentioned here.
Apart from breaking up the text, the pictures in the book serve absolutely no purpose and most add nothing to the narrative whatsoever. I’m impressed – it must take some effort to be so bad. Conversely the graphs and timelines are well done, clearly showing trends and imparting a lot of information in a concise way.
The glossary is handy and the last section called “fifty ideas” is an excellent resource if you want to read further.
One thing that perplexes me is the title of the book. Cryptocurrencies will not be “the end of money” – this is the conclusion the book itself comes to in the section called “Is bitcoin really money?”. So maybe the tile should have been “The End of Money?”. Not a big deal but it struck me as strange.
Still, if the other books in the Instant Expert series are as good as this, I will be reading more.
This is the story of the early (American) pioneers of supersonic flight (breaking the sound barrier) and the space race. And it is astounding.
Early on the book tries to nail what it was in the personalities of the men – test pilots from the Navy and Air Force – who risked their lives to go faster or higher than the others, to prove to the world that they were one of the special few at the top of their game. They had the skills, the ego, the guts… the right stuff.
As the book progresses it changes from expressing the concepts and ideas as to what constitutes the Right Stuff to a very character-driven history, and it definitely gets better as it goes along. The first few chapters are written very much in the Tom Wolfe style – with lots of exclamation! – and quite a lot of repetition. The repetition used for stylistic effect works well. The repetition to ram an idea down your throat, not so much.
But then the story starts to blossom, the forcefulness of the writing style fades into the background and you get enveloped in the feel of the events. It is like you are being given privileged access to a special time and place; you are invited to participate in the thrill of being on the cutting edge. You are getting insight into achievements that will change history and the way that people look at the world.
The narrative focuses very much on the people involved but undeniably the two stars are ace pilot Chuck Yeager and the astronaut John Glenn. It was amazing how little I knew about the rest of the people, in particular the other 6 astronauts chosen to take part in the early space missions. I kept myself away from Wikipedia so that their stories were new to me, but these are names that have faded in the collective memory. How?
By the end of the book I was enthralled, and when I finished I had to spend a little time just thinking about the scale of the achievements involved and the sheer joyous ride I had been on. I’m sure there are several excellent and more conventional histories of the space race, but Tom Wolfe has pulled off something very special here. He has managed to bring out the emotion and the pure magic of the events.
I came across this article whilst listening to an episode of the Esquire Classics podcast. I had never heard of Robert Noyce so I located the article and was instantly enthralled. Noyce was the (joint) inventor of the integrated circuit (“microchip”) and one of the founders of Intel. I’ve heard of Gordon Moore and Andy Grove so I’m not sure why Noyce is not mentioned along with his colleagues. His invention changed the world yet his is not a household name. Why?
The article is by Tom Wolfe (author of The Bonfire of the Vanities) and is from the December 1983 issue of Esquire magazine. The full title of the piece adds “How the Sun Rose on the Silicon Valley”.
I’ve read a couple of Tom Wolfe’s books and I’m a fan of his writing style. This style is evident here, particularly in the exquisite use of the exclamation mark!
It’s very interesting to look back at history (the 1950s – 1970s) from another point in history (1983). What is clear is that many things that we see happening today in the technology field are not the modern-day innovations we think they are, such as:
• big breakthroughs that will underpin future revolutions
• extremely rich tech entrepreneurs
• company startup culture / working crazy hours / stock options etc
• businesses trying to remove the traditional management structure
This has been going on for over half a century at this point.
The biggest technological breakthrough I could think of was the internet, which is starting to underpin everything we do today. It truly is / will be revolutionary. But without the invention of the integrated circuit in 1959 there would be no internet.
The microchip allowed people to fly to the moon within a decade of its introduction.
Even the introduction to the article – published over 30 years ago – could have been written now:
America is today in the midst of a great technological revolution. With the advent of the silicon chip, information processing, communications, and the national economy have been strikingly altered. The new technology is changing how we live, how we work, how we think.
Today we hear about ARM chips, data science and mobile. It is the same stuff as before – it’s just that the technology has evolved over time. People refine and combine technologies to create something new. Noyce did the same, but he built upon the transistor and the vacuum tube.
The article benefits from having Tom Wolfe as the author – the piece rises above what could have been a dry history and a tangle of techno-babble. The wit and wordplay shine as the author portrays the people and the scene…
… maybe he would drop in at the Wagon Wheel for a drink before he went home. Every year there was some place, the Wagon Wheel, Chez Yvonne, Rickey’s, the Roundhouse, where members of this esoteric fraternity, the young men and women of the semiconductor industry, would head after work to have a drink and gossip and brag and trade war stories about phase jitters, phantom circuits, bubble memories, pulse trains, bounceless contacts, burst modes, leapfrog tests, p-n junctions, sleeping-sickness modes, slow-death episodes, RAMs, NAKs, MOSes, PCMs, PROMs, PROM blowers, PROM burners, PROM blasters, and teramagnitudes, meaning multiples of a million millions. So then he wouldn’t get home until nine, and the baby was asleep, and dinner was cold, and the wife was frosted off, and he would stand there and cup his hands as if making an imaginary snowball and try to explain to her… while his mind trailed off to other matters, LSIs, VLSIs, alpha flux, de-rezzing, forward biases, parasitic signals, and that terasexy little cookie from Signetics he had met at the Wagon Wheel, who understood such things.
… and contrasts the business practices between the east and west coasts of America:
Nobody had ever seen a limousine and a chauffeur out there before. But that wasn’t what fixed the day in everybody’s memory. It was the fact that the driver stayed out there for almost eight hours, doing nothing. He stayed out there in his uniform, with his visored hat on, in the front seat of the limousine, all day, doing nothing but waiting for a man who was somewhere inside. John Carter was inside having a terrific chief executive officer’s time for himself. He took a tour of the plant, he held conferences, he looked at figures, he nodded with satisfaction, he beamed his urbane Fifty-seventh Street Biggie CEO charm. And the driver sat out there all day engaged in the task of supporting a visored cap with his head. People started leaving their workbenches and going to the front windows just to take a look at this phenomenon. It seemed that bizarre. Here was a serf who did nothing all day but wait outside a door in order to be at the service of the haunches of his master instantly, whenever those haunches and the paunch and the jowls might decide to reappear. It wasn’t merely that this little peek at the New York-style corporate high life was unusual out here in the brown hills of the Santa Clara Valley. It was that it seemed terribly wrong.
Articles are just not written like this any more. I absolutely recommend it – it is long but it is worth taking your time and reading.
• Article: The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce
• The Esquire Classics podcast: The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce
Earlier this week I went to the Barbican Centre (in London) with my daughter to see the current exhibition “Digital Revolution”.
I had looked at the website but I still was not sure what I was really going to find. The thing that I was interested in most of all was DevArt, which is billed as “a celebration of art made with code” (unsurprisingly in association with Google) .
When you first walk in you have a concise history of computers, games consoles and some early music equipment, and it makes you wonder if this is going to be the focus of the whole event. However, as you progress through the various areas one thing that really comes across is that this is an art exhibition – the fact that the tools used are digital is largely irrelevant, but at the same time the defining aspect of the pieces. These works are art – interactive, involving, breath-taking, fun.
Of all the parts of the exhibition, the only aspect that was a disappointment was DevArt. Here the pieces were interactive but several did not live up to expectations – the effects did not work as well as hoped or some of the interactive software was too complex and it was not clear what you had to do. We did not experience this anywhere else.
Below are some videos I shot as we were going around. Taking pictures was not possible as the darkness in most areas made the images from my phone go far too grainy – besides, still pictures would not do this exhibition justice. Most things here move. Video is the way to go. Hopefully the clips will give you the desire to see more and go to the exhibition itself if you can. It is excellent value for money and definitely one for children too.
Here are some highlights:
Sound & Vision has many interesting items, in particular a look at some special effects from the films Gravity and Inception…
… and a full-on audio-visual experience from will-i.am:
State of Play, with its main feature The Treachery of Sanctuary (three large white screens that take your movement and add some avian magic) is one of the standout installations:
Finally, this is probably my favourite. “Marshmallow Laser Feast Forest” is not in the main building but a five-to-ten minute walk down the road; even so, do not miss this. You enter a dark room. It is filled at intervals with many long black vertical tubes from the top of which shoot green laser beams. You walk through the “forest” tapping the “trees” as you go, each pole giving off a musical note that slowly fades. Brush a number of trees and you experience a gentle musical dissonance. If you ever fancied yourself as a ringer of small bells this is right up your street.